Types of laboratory tests to determine HPV

The development of papillomavirus is considered extremely dangerous for the human body. The sooner the pathology is diagnosed, the less serious the consequences. Tests will help determine HPV in the end. To do this, laboratories today offer ample methods that recognize not only the existence of the pathogen itself but also its type. This makes it easier for the specialist to choose the right treatment methods.

Briefly about papillomavirus and its consequences

Among gynecological diseases, HPV is quite common. Those who start having active sex are usually infected. Most types of infections do not cause serious problems and heal on their own, especially with a strong immune system.

Note! The most harmful are the varieties that are at risk with a high carcinogenic effect. Such forms can persist in the body for a long time and mutate into malignant tumors.

There are three degrees of carcinogenic pathogens. It has been proven that one patient can become a carrier of several types of papillomavirus at the same time.

In the presence of papillomavirus infections, the whole body suffers, but especially the reproductive system. Pathology affects the lower and upper genitalia and anus. If the disease is not treated in time, the following consequences will occur:

  1. Cancer of the vagina, cervix, vulva, penis.
  2. cervical cancer.
  3. Verruciform dysplasia.
  4. erosion.

Infection does not always lead to such serious complications. But with the appearance of papillomas and warts on the body it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible. The infection is not genetically transmitted to mom or dad. But the chances of having a baby in this case are slim. The presence of germs often causes miscarriage.

Diagnosis to detect human papillomavirus in the body

The virus does not show up for a long time. Thanks to the diagnoses, it is easy to identify the disease even at an early stage and choose an effective treatment. This helps to anticipate a potential threat to the patient's health.


To detect HPV, sophisticated fluid tests have been specially developed. A wide range of them are used as prophylactic treatment or to obtain the necessary information about the disease. In laboratories, the following types of research are considered to be in demand:

Methods Biomaterials Characteristic
PCR Saliva; urine; genital discharge; amniotic fluid. Determines the DNA of the pathogen and its level in the blood when there are no symptoms of the disease yet. Diagnosis is made in people with HRC. Longer typing is possible.
Dosage 21 Stroke removed from the site of infection. Shows the nature of the genotype, its quantitative aspects.
Amplification test Scrape from the vagina. Shows the level of infection in the blood, the risk of cancer.
Cellulite (Papanicolaou test) Stroke from urethra and urethra. Recognizes the category of pathological development. The method has a high probability of incorrect indications.
Histology Tissue sample (piece of organ tissue). This makes it possible to separate the chain cancer from the tumor.
human papillomavirus

Other methods use a blood test for HPV antibodies. During pregnancy, the viral load is low, so the evidence becomes inaccurate, which requires a different examination.

Some countries are implementing effective screening and treatment programs.

Three models are now available:

  1. Testing for carcinogenic papillomavirus variants.
  2. Pap test and liquid cytology.
  3. Use of acetic acid for visual inspection.

It is important to know! Thanks to the screening program, the oncology of the cervix is determined at an early stage. This increases the chances of a complete cure.

Implementation tips

Detecting viruses is available to everyone, even if there are no characteristic symptoms. Some consider it necessary as a preventive measure or to prevent the growth and development of oncology processes. Experts recommend examination in the following cases:

  1. Presence of papillomas on the skin and mucous membranes.
  2. To confirm questionable cytological results.
  3. Morbid vaginal discharge.
  4. Suspicion in women of oncology with dysplasia.
  5. Patient's personal concerns.
  6. Violation of urination.
  7. Planning a pregnancy, infertility.

An in-depth study of this pathology prevents the development of the body's susceptibility to other infections, such as the herpes simplex virus (HSV).

Research material

Epithelial tissue serves as the primary biomaterial in analytical procedures. To do this, take a swab for HPV. Very rarely, amniotic fluid, blood, urine, vaginal discharge are examined.

If a tissue analysis is ordered, a tissue sample is taken. The process of getting it is painful, as with the help of a special device, the affected web is clipped off.

Preparation for diagnosis

human papillomavirus test

Patients with experience of such procedures notice that it does not harm, the substance is taken without discomfort. But preparation requires a serious approach. In doing so, keep the following in mind:

  1. You only need to donate blood on an empty stomach.
  2. Restrict the use of drugs and alcohol.
  3. Do not use cosmetics and taps.
  4. Drink only plain water.
  5. Reduce mental and physical stress on the body.
  6. Temporarily give up close relationships.

You need to prepare for the lab activities in advance. On the day of stroke, it is recommended to wash the genitals. You must avoid urinating 2 hours before the operation. Compliance with such rules helps to obtain more accurate clues. Otherwise, the test will show a false negative result or vice versa.

To perform the operation on women

Getting a referral for an HPV test, many people have no idea what it is and how it is performed in women. You can get information about why this or that operation is necessary from your local doctor or information pages.

To perform papillomavirus tests in women, as in men, scrapes are often performed. With the help of a brush used in gynecology, essential nutrients are removed from the genital mucosa and sent to a laboratory. You can start diagnosing 5 days after the end of your period.

Clinical laboratories monitor whether all the conditions of the diagnostic process have been followed correctly. For this purpose, KVM or leveling is used. This test shows whether the amount of epithelial tissue being examined corresponds to the norm.

Biochemical samples from men

one looks through a microscope and researches hpv tests

Many people have an idea of how biologics are taken for HPV testing in women. But not everyone knows how this process takes place in men. The fence is made of the urethra, so it is often called the urethra. In order to prevent any micro-organisms from entering the material being studied, the toilet in the immediate area is first constructed. After that, the genitals must be treated with sterile saline and dried.

Your doctor will usually remove a smear from the urethra using a special sensor. The resulting material is placed on a slide and examined under a microscope. The technology allows you to determine only the presence of bacteria and infections.

More shows the image of a stroke for latent infections. The principle of its implementation is the same as in the first case. Only the material obtained is placed in a special solution and delivered to the laboratory. There it is studied and the DNA of germs is determined.

Terms and courses of the study

As soon as signs of weakened immunity appear, papillomas or condylomas appear on the skin, the body needs to be examined. HPV diagnosis has several stages:

  1. Visual examination by a doctor: for women - gynecologist, for men - urologist.
  2. To donate blood.
  3. Performing a biopsy.
  4. Histology.
  5. Cellulite.
  6. PCR.

At the clinical examination, the doctor can see external signs of pathology. For a deeper examination, he prescribes analytical methods in a laboratory.

Each clinic sets its own time limits for obtaining results.

Many clinics publish results quickly and the price list is much higher than the others. Cost does not always affect quality. Cheap laboratories also have good reviews.

Analyzing the results

symptoms of human papillomavirus

Patients who have undergone the necessary examination will find out as soon as possible whether there is cause for concern or whether it is possible to live in peace. With a general interpretation of the results, the presentation often takes place online. They are usually published in tablet form. For convenience of professionals, color markers are used. But it is important not to rush to conclusions, as the attending physician should establish a detailed diagnosis based on general history and data obtained.

It is important to know! Good results will be those where all samples are negative. This means that the patient is unlikely to develop complications, especially the transition from pathology to malignancy. In this case, the treatment has a favorable outlook.

The situation looks much more complicated with positive indicators. These patients are considered to be at high risk. In the future, additional diagnoses are needed, which is important for determining the stage of the disease and eliminating cancerous diseases. The patient needs constant medical supervision.

Other diagnostic methods

When diagnosing a disease, device diagnostic methods are sometimes used. They are often used as a supplement to see the changes that are taking place in the body. Nominate for this purpose:

  1. Cabbage reflection. With the help of special equipment, the cervix is examined. Thanks to a multiple increase, your doctor can diagnose warts that have appeared.
  2. Endoscopy.
  3. Ultrasound of the pelvis.
  4. MRI.

These diagnostic methods are often used when the disease worsens and affects the organs and their systems. In terms of cost, they are slightly worse than laboratory tests.

According to experts, the diagnosis of the presence of papillomavirus in young people should be regular. This is especially true for those at risk. This method reduces the risk of getting cancer.